Tuesday, January 01, 2008

New and Improved!

(Originally posted 10 September 2007. Postdated to 1 January 2008 to bump other posts.)

☞ 18 September 2007: Done entire page 가게 to 걔!

After a long, long hiatus, I have finally resumed work on the Korean Vocabulary List. As you may have been able to tell, it's just about the lowest-priority task I have in my busy life, but since I still get periodic inquiries from folks as to what the status of the project is, it's time to get back to work on it. I've settled on a format that I'm happy with, and I intend to update the list with anywhere from 10 to 20 words a day (a small but manageable number).

I welcome all feedback, but I will not entertain suggestions on other ways to do this list. I put off coming back to it for so long because I wanted to do it in such a way that would please everyone, but hey, I'm not even being paid for this! So I'll do it my way. ;) I've started on the 가 page, and so far have done 가게 to 가리키다. Enjoy!

Monday, December 31, 2007

Under Construction · 공사중

I am currently overhauling this blog (as of 15 September 2006), mainly by dividing the Korean Vocabulary List up into more, shorter posts. As a result, some links are temporarily broken, as I shuffle things around. Please bear with me, and we will resume our "regularly scheduled blogging" shortly.

이 블로그는 "공사중"인데 몇개의 링크들이 가리키는 페이지와 임시로 연결되지 않는데 잠시 후에 수리되겠습니다.

Updates · 업데이트

Since over the next few months I'll mainly be editing pages I've already posted (principally the Korean Vocabulary List), I'm keeping a record of updates here. Updates are listed in reverse chronological order, starting with the most recent.

This article was originally posted on 24 August 2006. The post date is set to 31 December 2007 to keep this post at the top of the blog (at least until then!).

17 Sep 2006★ Divided vocabulary list pages up into more, smaller pages (38 in total), to make them more manageable.
★ Posted more finely-grained sidebar links: 가 through 히.
★ Still in process of updating various links in introductory article, sidebar, and elsewhere.
24-25 Aug 2006★ Removed vocabulary list details posted in January 2005 and added links to corresponding updated pages.
24 Aug 2006★ Expanded and updated sidebar links.
★ Expanded vocabulary list from 3,045 entries to 5,902 entries (see main page for explanation).

Sunday, September 17, 2006

Korean Vocabulary List ·
한국어 단어장

Introduction · How to Read Entries · Notes · Updates


This is a list of basic Korean Vocabulary. The list contains approximately 5,900 entries, but that number will change as entries are merged or added. The entry words come from South Korea's National Institute of the Korean Language (국립국어원), in their May 2003 publication Vocabulary List for Studying Korean (한국어 학습용 어휘 목록) [1]. The list includes 5,965 words that its anonymous compiler(s) consider essential for students of Korean to learn, is the fruit of much productive research [2], and has resulted in at least one or two published dictionaries since the list was released [3].

How to Read Entries

Typical entries are of the following format:

가능 [가ː능] (可能), n.: possibility
가능성 [-썽] (-性), n.: possibility
가능하다, adj. (-해, -하니): be possible
가능해지다, v.i. (-져, -지니): become possible
가다01, v.i., v.t., v.aux. (가, 가니; low formal imperative: 가거라): go
(as an auxiliary verb, indicates an ongoing action; see here for examples.)

Main entry words are listed alphabetically (that is, in Han'gŭl (Hangeul) "가나다" order). Each entry word is linked to the Naver Korean Dictionary (네이버 국어사전) page for that word, except where such a page does not exist. The Naver Korean Dictionary's content is identical to that of the National Institute of the Korean Language (국립 국어원)'s Dictionary of Standard Korean (표준국어대사전).

Derived entry words are listed under the corresponding principal entry words and indented. Derived entry words ending in -되다, -적, -하다, or -히 often link to and are covered on the same Naver dictionary page as the corresponding principal entry words.

A numerical superscript (e.g., 01) identifies a specific entry for a word in the Dictionary of Standard Korean. The superscript 80 indicates a word that occurs in the Frequency Survey of Modern Korean Usage (현대 국어 사용 빈도 조사) but not in the Dictionary, where multiple entries exist in the latter.

Pronunciation glosses are marked in [square brackets] when a word's pronunciation differs from its spelling (either because of regular, rule-defined sound changes, or because the word's pronunciation is simply irregular). A pair of triangular dots (ː) indicates that the preceding vowel is long. Long vowels in Korean are simply pronounced for a longer period of time than short vowels. For example, 가능 [가ː능] sounds like 가——능, with the the mouth held open on the ㅏ sound in 가 longer than for, say, 가다01.

Hancha (Hanja) are marked in (parentheses), and are omitted where they are redundant, to save space. (E.g., (可能) is shown for 가능02 in the example above, but omitted for 가능성, for which (-性) is shown for the suffix -성.)

Parts of speech are given after the entry words, pronunciation glosses, and hancha. (Note that intransitive and transitive verbs are not identified as such in the Naver Dictionary, but they are distinguished in many print dictionaries, and their distinction is an essential one for learners to know.) Parts of speech are identified by English abbreviations:

adj.aux.auxiliary adjective(보조 형용사)
dep.n.dependent noun(의존 명사)
v.aux.auxiliary verb(보조 동사)
v.i.intransitive verb(자동사)
v.t.transitive verb(타동사)

Verb and adjective conjugations are shown in (parentheses) after the part of speech. The "paradigmatic" infinitive (-아/어) and connective (-(으)니) forms are shown for all verbs and adjectives, whether regular or irregular. If there are other notable irregular forms, they are marked and shown (e.g., the low formal imperative 가거라 for the verb 가다01). For many entry words, only the part of the word that changes is shown, to save space (e.g., (-해, -하니) for 가능하다 and (-져 [-저], -지니) for 가능해지다 in the example above).

[1]. The list is accessible through the National Institute's website, but requires a bit of navigation to get to. Go to the bulletin board at this link: http://korean.go.kr/06_new/press/korean_list.jsp, then navigate to post #50. (As of 10 September 2007, it's on page 5, but the page number will increase over time as newer posts bump it down.) That link will take you to an introduction to the list, from which a Microsoft Excel Workbook version of the list may be downloaded (called "contents.xls"). Post 52 gives the same list, in Arae-A Hangul 97 format. Post 51 links to a Unicode text file, but as of 10 September 2007, that file seems to be inaccessible. For a translation of the introduction to the list, see this page.

[2]. Much of the early research seems to have been spearheaded by 김광해 (Kim Kwang-Hae), a Korean Language professor at Seoul National University, who has since passed away. He had evidently done a lot of research on the topic, and wrote a lengthy article in the Autumn 2003 issue of "새국어생활" (New Korean Life), exploring the concept of basic (or literally, "foundational") vocabularies: '기초어휘의 개념과 중요성' ("The Concept and Importance of a Basic Vocabulary").

[3]. Since I first discovered the vocabulary list soon after it was published (it was an answer to my prayers!), the list parlayed itself into a major project: the Learner's Dictionary of Korean (외국인을 위한 한국어 학습 사전). The dictionary appears to draw its selection of entries directly from the vocabulary list I'm using for this project. Not to toot my own horn, but I wrote up a wholly informal, non-academic, and unsolicited review of the dictionary on the Korean Studies discussion list here. The dictionary has its plusses and minuses, as discussed by others as well as myself here, here, and here. Rumour has it that there has been at least one other dictionary published based on this word list, but I haven't seen it and I don't know its title.


Long-vowel stems: When a single-syllable verb or adjective stem has a long vowel (e.g., 갈ː-다, 개ː-다), special rules apply. Generally, if the syllable following the stem starts with a consonant sound, then the long vowel is retained (갈ː다, 갈ː고, 개ː다, 개ː고); but if the syllable following the stem starts with a vowel sound, then the long vowel is dropped (갈아, 갈으니, 개어, 개으니). When any single-syllable verb stem (whether long or short) ends in a vowel and is merged with the ending -아 or -어, however, the long vowel is retained or gained (개ː다 → 개어 or 개ː, 하다 → 하여 or 해ː, 되다 → 되어 or 돼ː). Note, however, that if 하다 or 되다 are used as suffixes following a word root (e.g., 강하다, 가ː능하다, 감ː소되다), -해 and -돼 may be short (the jury's still out; I'm still looking into it).

Stems ending in ㄹ: All verb and adjective stems ending in change their form by dropping the ㄹ before certain endings and affixes, as follows:
☞ Before -을, the -을 is simply dropped. For example, *놀을 becomes 놀.
☞ Before -음, the is replaced by ㄻ, although one often sees ㄹ음. For example, 놀음 is used, but more properly should be written as 놂.
☞ Before -은, the is replaced by ㄴ. For example, *가늘은 becomes 가는.
☞ Before endings starting with -으ㄴ or -으ㅅ (-으는, -으니, -으시- etc.), the is dropped, as is -으-. For example, *갈으니 becomes 가니, and *알으십니다 becomes 아십니다.
☞ Before -소 or -습니다, the is dropped, and -소 or -습니다 is changed to -오 or -ㅂ니다 respectively. For example, *말소 becomes 마오, and *살습니다 becomes 삽니다.
The table below lists common verbs and adjectives with stems ending in ㄹ:

(stem changes)
가늘다, 갈다

Stems ending in ㅂ: Most verb and adjective stems ending in are irregular, changing their form before endings or affixes that start with vowel sounds (-어, -었-, -은, -을, -음, -으면, -으시-, etc.). In such cases, the is replaced by and merged with the following syllable. For example, *가깝어 becomes 가까워, *가볍었다 becomes 가벼웠다, and *눕으시네 becomes 누우시네. The table below lists common verbs and adjectives with stems ending in ㅂ:

(stem changes)
가깝다, 가볍다, 갑작스럽다
(no change)
넓다, 씹다, 입다, 잡다, 좁다

Copyright (©) 2006-2007 Stefan Ewing. All rights reserved. No material may be reproduced for the purpose of public redisplay in any form whatsoever, except with the express written consent of the author.

Vocabulary List: 가게 to 걔

This page forms part of the Korean Vocabulary List.
For links to related pages, see the box at right

가ː게, n.: shop, store
가격03 (價格), n.: price
가구04 (家具), n.: furniture
가깝다 [-따], adj. (가까워, 가까우니 (ㅂ-stem)): be near
가까워지다, v.i. (-져 [-저], -지니): approach
가까이, n., adv.: proximity; nearly
가꾸다, v.t. (가꿔, 가꾸니): cultivate
가끔, adv.: sometimes
가난01, n.: poverty
가난하다, adj. (-해, -하니): be poor
가늘다, adj. (가늘어, 가느니 (ㄹ-stem)): be thin
가ː능 (可能), n.: possibility
가ː능성 [-썽] (-性), n.: possibility
가ː능하다, adj. (-해, -하니): be possible
가ː능해지다, v.i. (-져 [-저], -지니): become possible
가다01, v.i., v.t., v.aux.
     (가, 가니; low formal imperative: 가거라): go
     (as v.aux., indicates an ongoing action; see examples here)
갈수록 [-쑤록], adv.: as time goes by
가두다01, v.t. (가둬, 가두니): confine
갇히다 [가치다], v.i. (갇혀 [가처], 갇히니 [가치니]): be confined
가득01, adv.: fully
가득하다01 [가드카다], adj.
     (-해 [가드캐], -하니 [가드카니]): be full
가득히 [가드키], adv.: fully
가라앉다 [-안따], v.i. (-앉아 [-안자], -앉으니 [-안즈니]): sink, settle
가려지다: see 가리다02
가ː령05 (假令), adv.: supposing
가로01, n., adv.: horizontal(ly)
가로막다 [-따], v.t. (-막아, -막으니): obstruct
가로04 (街路), n.: street
가로등 (-燈), n.: street light
가로수 (-樹), n.: street tree
가루01, n.: powder
가르다, v.t. (갈라, 갈으니): divide
가르치다01, v.t. (가르쳐 [-처], 가르치니): teach
가르침, n.: teaching
가리다02, v.t. (가려, 가리니): conceal
가리다01, v.i. (가려, 가리니): be concealed
가려지다, v.i. (-져 [-저], -지니]): be concealed
     (links are to 가리어지다, of which 가려지다 is a variant)
가리다03, v.t. (가려, 가리니): pick out, tell apart
가리키다01, v.t. (가리켜, 가리키니): point
가만, adv., int.: (adv.) silently; (int.) "Shhh!"
가만있다 [-읻따], v.i. (-있어 [-이써], -있으니 [-이쓰니]):
     be still, be silent
가만히, adv.: silently
가뭄, n.: drought
     (more at 가물, of which 가뭄 is a variant)
가방01, n.: handbag, case
     (from Japanese kaban, from Dutch kabas)
가볍다 [-따], adj. (가벼워, 가벼우니 (ㅂ-stem)): be light (not heavy)
가사09 (歌詞), n.: lyrics
가ː상05 (假想), n.: imagination; virtualness
가수11 (歌手), n.: singer
가스, n.: gas (from English)
가슴01, n.: chest; heart (figurative)
가슴속 [-쏙], n.: innermost heart
가요02 (歌謠), n.: song
가운데, n.: middle
가위01, n.: scissors
가을01, n.: autumn
가이드, n.: guide (from English)
가입 (加入), n.: joining, admission
가입자 [-짜] (-者), n.: member, subscriber
가입하다 [가이파다], v.i., v.t.
     (-해 [가이패], -하니 [가이파니]): join, enter, subscribe
가장01, adv.: most, "-est"
     (used to denote the superlative form of adjectives)
가장07 (家長), n.: head of household
가정06 (家庭), n.: home, household
가정교사 (-敎師), n.: tutor
가ː정07 (假定), n.: supposition
가져가다, 가져가다주다, 가져오다: see 가지다
가족01 (家族), n.: family
가죽01, n.: fur, hide, leather
가지01, n.: branch, stem
가지04, n., dep.n.: kind, variety
갖가지 [갇까지], n.: various kinds (abbreviation of 가지가지01)
가지다, v.t., v.aux. (가져 [가저], 가지니): have, hold
     (as a v.aux. in the form X-아/어 가지고 Y-다, indicates that
     action or condition X brings about action or condition Y.
     See section II at the bottom of this page for examples.)
가져가다 [가저-], v.t.
     (-가, -가니; low formal imperative: -가거라): take
가져다주다 [가저다-], v.t. (-줘, -주니): bring about, cause
가져오다 [가저-], v.t.
     (-와, -오니; low formal imperative: -오너라): bring
갖다01 [갇따], v., v.aux. (갖아, 갖으니): abbreviation of 가지다
갖추다 [갇추다], v.t. (갖춰 [갇춰], 갖추니 [갇추니]):
     acquire; equip oneself with; prepare for
가ː짜 (假-), n.: fake
가치06 (價値), n.: value, worth
가치관 (-觀), n.: values
가톨릭, n.: Catholic(ism) (from English)
가하다01 (加-), v.: add, apply
01 (各), det.: each, every
각각01 [-깍] (各各), n., adv.: each one; each, separately
각국 [-꾹] (各國), n.: each country, every country
각기02 [-끼] (各其), n., adv.: each; respectively
각오01 (覺悟), n.: readiness
각자02 [-짜] (各自), n., adv.: each person; each
각종 [-쫑] (各種), n.: every kind, various kinds
01, n.: saltiness
간장01 (-醬), n.: soy sauce (literally, "salty sauce")
간ː08 (肝), n.: liver
10 (間), n., dep.n.: interval, distance; relationship
간ː격02 (間隔), n.: space, interval, distance
간단하다02 (簡單-), adj. (-해, -하니): be simple
간단히 (簡單-), adv.: simply
간부05 (幹部), n.: executive
간섭 (干涉), n.: intervention; meddling
간ː식02 (間食), n.: snack
간신히 (艱辛-), adv.: barely
간장01: see 01
간ː접 (間接), n.: indirectness
간ː접적 [-쩍] (-的), n., det.: indirect(ness)
간판02 (看板), n.: signboard
간편하다 (簡便-), adj. (-해, -하니): be simple and convenient
간호 (看護), n.: nursing
간호사 (看護師), n.: nurse
간ː혹 (間或), adv.: occasionally; sparsely
갇히다: see 가두다01
갈다01, v.t. (갈아, 가니 (ㄹ-stem)): change, replace
갈아입다 [-따], v.t. (-입어, -입으니): change (clothes)
갈아타다, v.i., v.t. (-타, -타니): change (buses, trains)
갈ː다02, v.t. (갈아, 가ː니 (ㄹ-stem; see also note)): grind, polish
갈등 [-뜽] (葛藤), n.: trouble, conflict
갈비01, n.: rib
갈비탕 (-湯), n.: beef-rib soup
갈색 [갈쌕] (褐色), n.: brown
갈수록: see 가다01
갈아입다, 갈아타다: see 갈다01
갈증 [-쯩] (渴症), n.: thirst
감ː01, n.: persimmon
감ː12 (感), n.: feeling, impression
감ː각02 (感覺), n.: sense
감ː기04 (感氣), n.: cold (illness)
감ː다01 [-따], v.t. (감아, 감으니 (note)): close (one's eyes)
감ː다03 [-따], v.t. (감아, 감으니 (note)): wind, coil, swaddle
감독02 (監督), n.: supervision; supervisor, director
감ː동02 (感動), n.: deep or strong impression
감ː동적 (-的), n., det.: moving(ness), touching(ness)
감ː사08 (感謝), n.: gratitude
감ː사하다05, v.i., v.t., adj. (-해, -하니):
     (v.i.) express thanks; (v.t.) thank; (adj.) merit gratitude
감상05 (鑑賞), n.: appreciation
감상하다04, v.t. (-해, -하니): appreciate
감ː소01 (減少), n.: decrease
감ː소되다, v.i. (-돼, -되니): be decreased
감ː소하다, v.i., v.t. (-해, -하니): decrease
감ː수11 (感受), n.: reception
감ː수성02 [-썽] (-性), n.: sensitivity
감ː싸다, v.i., v.t. (-싸, -싸니): wrap, shelter, protect
감옥02 (監獄), n.: prison; jail
감자01, n.: potato
감ː정06 (感情), n.: emotion
감ː정적01 (-的), n., det.: emotional(ness)
감추다, v.t. (감춰, 감추니): hide, conceal
감ː히 (敢-), adv.: dare to
     (especially in negative constructions, as in "do not dare to")
05 (匣), n., dep.n.:
     small box; (in counting) pack (X 한 갑: one pack of X)
갑작스럽다 [갑짝쓰럽따], adj. (-스러워, -스러우니 (ㅂ-stem)): be sudden
갑자기 [갑짜기], adv.: suddenly
[갑], n.: price
     (when followed by a vowel sound, the in
     is pronounced and doubled; e.g., 값이 [갑씨])
값싸다, adj. (-싸, -싸니): be cheap
01 (江), n.: river
강물 (江-), n.: river water
강남 (江南), n.: area south of a river;
     (in Seoul) neighbourhood south of the Han River
강ː당 (講堂), n.: auditorium
강도05 (强度), n.: intensity
강ː도06 (强盜), n.: burglar, robber
강력하다 [강녀카다] (强力-), adj.
     (-해 [강녀캐], -하니 [강녀카니]): be powerful
강력히 [강녀키] (强力-), adv.: powerfully
강렬하다02 [강녈-] (强烈-), adj. (-해, -하니): be intense
강물: see 01
강변01 (江邊), n.: riverbank, riverside
강북 (江北), n.: area north of a river;
     (in Seoul) neighbourhood north of the Han River
강ː사04 (講師), n.: lecturer, instructor
강ː수03 (降水), n.: precipitation
강ː수량 (-量), n.: amount of precipitation
강아지: see 03
강ː요 (强要), n.: force, cumpulsion
강ː요하다, v.i., v.t. (-해, -하니): force, compel
강ː의02 [-이] (講義), n.: lecture
강ː의하다02, v.i., v.t. (-해, -하니): lecture (on)
강ː제01 (强制), n.: compulsion, compulsoriness
강조02 (强調), n.: emphasis
강조하다 (强調-), v.i., v.t. (-해, -하니): emphasize
강하다02 (强-), adj. (-해, -하니): be strong
강화04 (强化), n.: strengthening
강화하다02, v.t. (-해, -하니): strengthen
갖가지: see 가지04
갖다01, 갖추다: see 가지다
같다 [-따], adj. (같아, 같으니): be like; be the same as
같이 [가치], adv., post-n. particle:
     (adv. or particle, after noun X) like X; as X does;
     (adv., before verb Y) do Y together
같이하다, v.t. (-해, -하니):
     (with abstract nouns only) share, partake in
갚다 [-따], v.t. (갚아, 갚으니): repay
개ː03, n.: dog
강아지, n.: puppy
10 (個·箇·介), dep.n.:
     (in counting) piece, item (X 두 개: two items of X)
개ː개 (個個), n.: each thing
개ː개인 (-人), n.: each person
개구리, n.: frog
개국01 (個國), dep.n.:
     (in counting) country (삼 개국: three countries)
개ː나리01, n.: forsythia (a shrub with yellow flowers (Oxford))
개ː다01, v.i. (개ː, 개ː니 (note)): (of weather) clear up
개ː미03, n.: ant
개발 (開發), n.: development
개발되다, v.i. (-돼, -되니): be developed
개발하다, v.t.: develop
개방04 (開放), n.: opening, openness
개방되다, v.i. (-돼, -되니): be opened up
개방하다03, v.t. (-해, -하니): throw open; open up
개별 (個別), n.: individualness
(usually modifies a following noun X, as in "individual X.")
개ː선01 (改善), n.: improvement
개선되다01, v.i. (-돼, -되니): be improved
개선하다01, v.t. (-해, -하니): improve
개ː성03 (個性), n.: personality; individuality
개월 (個月), dep.n.: (in counting) month (삼 개월: three months)
개ː인02 (個人), n.: individual (person)
개ː인적 (-的), n., det.: individual(ness)
객관 [-꽌] (客觀), n.: objectivity
객관적 (-的), n.: objective(ness)
: see 아이01

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